Skin Whitening Ingredients

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Skin whitening products have become increasingly popular in the past few years. The main purpose for skin lightening products is to lighten the skin as well as even out skin tone or to treat pigmentation disorders such as freckles, pregnancy marks and age spots.

The most successful recent and natural skin whitening agents are: Arbutin, Vitamin C, Kojic Acid, Licorice Extract, Burner Root Extract, Scutellaria Extract, Mulberry, Melanostat, these agents are all Tyrosinase inhibitors, they inactivate Tyrosinase ( the enzyme responsible for skin darkening) by chelating with its vital cooper ion and suppressing the tautomerization from Dopachrome to DHICA, L- Ascorbic Acid and its derivatives which include L- Ascorbic Acid ( Vitamin C), act as reducing agents on melanin intermediates, thus blocking the oxidation chain reaction at various points from tyrosine /DOPA to melanin.

Melanostat is a new skin bleaching agent that act on the Tyrosinase Enzyme AND directly on the melanin cell receptors (the only skin bleaching agent act directly on melanin cells) and deactivate those cells, this process called melanogenesis which is an important part in skin tanning, once its deactivated, it will help the skin to get lighter.

Alpha Hydroxy Acid, Retinol (Vitamin A) are skin exfoliator, help in renewing the skin and gives a new lighter skin. 

Our new skin whitening complex that contain 11 skin whitening ingredients is very effective, a patent pending formula, it efficacy is far superior to any product in the market that comes with a singles or even two or three skin bleaching ingredients, these products simply does not work.   

Arbutin    

                                                Natural Double Action Whitening Agent

A new type of skin de-pigmentation and whitening agents, an extract of Bearberry plant which produced by a solid /liquid extraction, an environmentally friendly process .

Cosmetic uses of Arbutin:

Arbutin protect the skin against damage caused by free radicals, Arbutin is a skin whitening agent which is very popular in Japan and Asian countries for skin de-pigmentation, Arbutin inhibits the formation of melanin pigment by inhibiting Tyrosinase activity.

Arbutin in medical use:

Back in the 18th century Arbutin was first used in medical areas as an anti-inflammatory and antibacterial agent. It was used particularly for cystitis, urethritis and pyelitis. These uses still until today where natural medicine uses only natural ingredients to treat any disease.

It may be used to repress the virulence of bacterial pathogens and to prevent contaminating bacteria, it is also used for treating allergic inflammation of the skin . More recently, Arbutin has been used to prevent pigmentation and to whiten the skin beautifully. It can be used to whiten the skin, to prevent liver spots and freckles, to treat sunburn marks and to regulate melanogenesis.

Arbutin is very safe skin agent for external use which does not have toxicity, stimulation, unpleasant odor or side effect such as Hydroqinone.The encapsulation of Arbutin constitute a delivery system to potentialize the effect in time. It is a way to incorporate the hydrophilic Arbutin in lipophilic media. Arbutin give three main properties; Whitening effects, anti- age effect and UVB/ UVC filter .

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi ( Bearberry ) :   

This plant from the botanical family of the ericacae grows in many areas of the world, in Europe, in Northern Temperate Asia and north America. The bush is green of 15-20 centimetres high with leaves dark green on the upper surface, paler beneath, leathery, obovate, spatulate, about 2 cm long and 0.5-1 cm broad, margins entire, slightly revolute.

The scarlet red fruits (drupes), commonly named bear berries. The part of the plant traditionally used for extraction are the leaves. It has an astringent taste and slight odor.  

 Vitamin C   (L- Ascorbyl Acid)

There is an increasing awareness that Vitamin C has a wide variety of role in human health. New therapeutic uses are being investigated daily, among recent discoveries is that Vitamin C can play important role in the health and beauty of your skin. Vitamin C as Ascorbyl form has been tested extensively and reported in  journal of American Academy of Dermatology to inhibit the production of the melanin ( Melanin is the pigment which give the skin it's dark color ), when Vitamin C inhibit the production of the melanin, a lighter and brighter skin will reveal in just few weeks.  

Vitamin -C does more than that also, Vitamin -C is required for collagen synthesis, which declines markedly in aging skin. As we grow older, we suffer diminished micro capillary circulation within our skin, which deprives our skin cells of the supply of Vitamin -C it needs for youthful collagen synthesis. The topical application of Vitamin -C in a skin-penetrating medium can dramatically enhance the availability of Vitamin -C for collagen production.

Vitamin -C regenerates vitamin E in the skin. An antioxidant like vitamin E can only suppress a limited number of free radicals before it runs out of electrons to donate. Vitamin -C regenerates vitamin E and enables vitamin E to provide sustained antioxidant protection in the skin's elastin fibers.

Vitamin -C plays a vital role in skin repair. When your skin is injured, its Vitamin -C content is used up rapidly in the scavenging of free radicals, and in synthesizing collagen to speed healing. 

Licorice

Glycyrrhetinic acid, isolated from Glycyrrihiza glabra (licorice) is widely used in cosmetic industry. Licorice inhibit tyrosinase activity of melanocytes without any cytotoxicity, it also showed that UV-B–induced pigmentation and erythema can be inhibited by topical application of 0.5% Licorice  The anti-inflammatory properties of Licorice were attributed to inhibition of superoxide anion production and cyclooxygenase activity.

 Kojic acid

A fungal metabolic product, kojic acid inhibits the catecholase activity of tyrosinase, which is the rate-limiting, essential enzyme in the biosynthesis of the skin pigment melanin. Kojic acid also is consumed widely in the Japanese diet with the belief that it is of benefit to health. Indeed, it has been shown to significantly enhance neutrophil phagocytosis and lymphocyte proliferation stimulated by phytohemagglutinin. Melanocytes treated with kojic acid become nondendritic with a decreased melanin content. Additionally, it scavenges reactive oxygen species that are excessively released from cells or generated in tissue or blood.

Mulberry

This tyrosinase inhibitor was isolated from a plant herbal extract. The plant roots from which paper mulberry was isolated were collected in Korea. The tyrosinase inhibition of paper mulberry was compared to kojic acid and HQ. The IC50, the concentration causing 50% inhibition of the activity of tyrosinase, was reported to be 0.396% compared to 5.5% for hydroquinone and 10.0% for kojic acid.

Melanostat 

Melanostat is a peptide obtained by amino acid synthesis with a technique of Merryfield.

It demonstrate an outstanding anti MSH activity experimentally investigated for skin lightening. The target of Melanostat the membrane receptor of alpha-MSH on the melanocytes, the B- MICR receptor , its mode of action is a competitive inhibition of alpha-MSH, membrane receptors are blocked in a natural way. The anti-MSH is a molecule naturally present in the skin. It belong to the system of  regulation of the pigmentation. Melanostat counterbalances the formation of melanin and especially the synthesis  of tyrosinase, key enzyme involved in the process of pigmentation. In the skin, alpha-MSH plays an essential role in the stimulation of the synthesis of melanin. This process is under the control of an anti—MSH, also naturally present in the skin.

Recently, researches performed on alpha- MSH enabled a detailed study of the structure and function of this molecule, so as the exact determination of its receptor. This receptor is B receptor, its scientific determination is MICR receptor. The study of these molecules enabled researchers to synthesize peptides with a similar (MSH-like), or antagonist (anti-MSH) activity. The structure of Melanostat antagonist peptide of the alpha-MSH, is relatively similar to the structure of alpa-MSH. Because of this similarity, Melanostat acts while competing the receptors of alpha-MSH on the melanocytes. The action of Melanostat occurs before the action of the well-known inhibitors. Which acts on the intracellular enzyme system. Melanostat does not penetrate the cell because its competitive activity initiates on membrane receptors. Its action enables a natural and reversible blockage of the membrane receptors, without disturbing the physiological functioning of the cutaneous cells. Thus, Melanostat counteracts the formation of melanin and notably the synthesis of tyrosinase, key enzyme of the pigmentation process of the skin. The anti-MSH molecule naturally exist in the organism, and is involved in a system that regulates melanogenesis. It is activated in season changes.

When sunshine is high, the amount of alpha MSH exceed the amount of anti-MSH. The receptors for alpha-MSH multiply at the surface of the cells. The results is an increase of the synthesis of the melanin and the rise of the pigmentation of the skin. When the sunshine is low, anti-MSH exceed alpha-MSH. The receptors at the surface of the melanocytes decrease. The synthesis of melanin is not stimulated anymore, pigmentation of the skin decreases. Thus, alpha-MSH and anti-MSH play the role of accelerator or brake for the synthesis of melanin. Depending on the predominance of anti-MSH or alpha-MSH, the color of the skin evolves in a away or another.

The incorporation of Melanostat in skin lightening creams will place the skin in a physiological dominant anti-MSH situation. Its action is based on the reinforcement of the natural ability of the skin to counteract the activity of alpha-MSH. Melanostat has been investigated in vivo against alpha MSH: the darkening of the skin induced by alpha-MSH is assessed and expressed in percentage of change by comparison with the normal situation. 

Investigations are performed on the skin biopsies. Melanogenesis is induced by alpha-MSH. The activity of the Melanostat is evaluated for a ratio Melanstat/MSH of 25, 100 and 1

Melanostat at 2 nmoles/g inhibits pigmentation induced by alpha-MSH at concentration of 0.08 nmoles/g. In these experimental conditions, the maximal inhibition observed is 100%.

Melanostat at 0.2 nmoles/g, inhibits pigmentation induced by alpha MSH at a concentration of 2 pmoles/g. In these experimental conditions, the maximal inhibition observed is 105%.

Melanostat, at 0.2 nmoles/g, inhibits pigmentation induced by alpha-MSH at a concentration of 0.2 nmoles/g.

With equivalent concentration, maximal inhibition observed is 600%. Melanostat demonstrates a remarkable lightening action. 

Study of the activity of Melanostatine-DM on the inhibition of melanogenesis:

Melanostat induces an inhibition of synthesis of melanin synthesis by 21% which means that Melanostat inhibit of 21% of the melanin induced by alpha-MSH analogue. Melanostat display an antagonist of the process of activation of the Tyrosinase.                        

Retinol  

The most important natural form of vitamin A Vitamin A is the first vitamin to be used topically for the treatment of damaged human skin. Today, the term vitamin A is applied to retinol (Vitamin A alcohol), retinal (Vitamin A aldehyde) and tretinoin (Vitamin A acid).  Vitamin A stimulates mitotic activity and the production of collagen - the stuff skin is made of. It is now known that the clinical effect obtained with high doses of vitamin A is necessary for normal differentiate and maintenance of epithelial tissues. Especially, retinol is held out as the new great hope for reduction of photo aging skin. Retinol or Vitamin A helps to renew and exfoliate the skin, giving a new lighter, beautiful skin .

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